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- Marks, David R.
- Wildlife damage management technical series 2018
- Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species originally brought to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries for ornamental ponds and lakes, zoos and aviculture collections. Original populations were located in northeastern states along the Hudson Valley but have since expanded to several Midwestern states and portions of the western U.S. and Canada. Mute swan damage includes competing with native waterfowl, destroying native plants, spreading disease, and colliding with aircraft. They are also considered a nuisance in some areas due to their abundant fecal droppings and aggressiveness towards people. Some have questioned the status of mute swans as an introduced species, but multiple reviews by scientists and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service clearly support the conclusion that mute swans are not native to North America. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, therefore, does not protect mute swans, and management authority falls under jurisdiction of the states and Tribes.
- 1 online resource (14 pages)
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
- USDA publications