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- Lowney, Martin S., Beckerman, Scott F., Barras, Scott C., and Seamans, Thomas W.
- Wildlife damage management technical series 2018
- Abundant gull populations in North America have led to a variety of conflicts with people. Gulls cause damage at aquaculture facilities and other properties, and often collide with aircraft. Their use of structures on and near water results in excessive amounts of bird droppings on boats and docks. Their presence near outdoor dining establishments, swimming beaches, and recreational sites can lead to negative interactions with people. Large amounts of gull fecal material pollutes water and beaches resulting in drinking water contamination and swim bans. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion and limited lethal control may reduce damage to an acceptable level. Gulls are classified as a migratory bird species and are protected by federal and, in most cases, state laws. In the United States, gulls may be taken only with a permit issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Occasionally, an additional permit is required from the state wildlife management agency.
- 1 online resource (16 pages)
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
- USDA publications