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Field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, and Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of near-isogenic soft and hard wheat kernels and corresponding flours

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Secondary field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate native near-isogenic soft and hard wheat kernels and their roller milled flours. FE SEM images of flat-polished interior endosperm indicated distinct differences between soft and hard wheats with less internal continuity in the soft wheat, whereas individual starch granules were much less evident in the hard kernel due to a more continuous matrix. AFM images revealed two different microstructures. The interior of the hard kernel had a granular texture with distinct individual spheroid features of 10–50 nm while the images obtained for the soft kernel revealed less distinct small grains and more larger features, possibly micro-structural features of starch granules. Raman spectra resolved identical distinct frequencies for both kernel types with slightly different intensities between types. Finally, the chemical surface compositions of flour for these two types of kernels obtained by XPS provided subtle insight into the differences between soft and hard wheat kernels. These combined advanced microscopic and spectroscopic analyses provide additional insight into the differences between the soft and hard wheat kernels.
Scudiero, L. , Morris, Craig F.
Includes references
Journal of cereal science 2010 Sept., v. 52, issue 2
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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