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Genotype and Environment Variation for Arabinoxylans in Hard Winter and Spring Wheats of the U.S. Pacific Northwest
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The development of high-quality wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars depends on a thorough understanding of the constituents of grain and their variation due to genetics and environment. Arabinoxylans (pentosans) are key constituents of wheat grain and have broad and far-reaching influences on milling and baking quality. However, variation in arabinoxylans due to genotype and environment are not fully understood. In this study, 25 hard winter and 25 hard spring wheat commercial cultivars and advanced breeding lines developed from eight public and private breeding programs in the U.S. Pacific Northwest were analyzed for water-extractable and total arabinoxylan contents (WE-AX and total AX), and the proportion of total AX that was water-extractable. Winter and spring genotypes were grown in three environments each. The results indicated that there were significant differences among both sets of hard wheat genotypes for WE-AX, total AX, and proportion of total AX that was WE-AX. The WE-AX and total AX mean content ranges for the winter cultivars were 0.390-0.808 and 3.09-4.04%, respectively; and for the spring cultivars 0.476-0.919 and 3.94-4.70%, respectively. WE-AX as a percentage of total AX was similar between the two genotype sets, 11.7-23.0%. Arabinoxylan fractions were generally not correlated with grain protein, test weight, and kernel hardness. The two highest correlations for winter wheats were between protein and total AX (r = -0.40) and test weight and percentage of total AX that were water-extractable (r = 0.37) for winter wheats. Among spring wheats, single-kernel characterization system hardness was negatively correlated with WE-AX and proportion of total AX that was WE-AX (r = -0.46 and -0.51, respectively). Although often significant, arabinoxylan fractions were usually not highly intercorrelated, indicating some independence of traits. Notable genotypes, being especially high or low for one or more arabinoxylan fraction and, thus, candidates for further genetic study and cross-breeding, included Juniper, Eddy, and ORN980995 winter wheats, and Hollis, Alta Blanca, and WQL9HDALP spring wheats. Although the results indicate that arabinoxylan fractions of wheat grain can be highly influenced by environment, there is clear support for the existence of genetic differences, especially for WE-AX and the proportion of total AX that is water-extractable. As such, the manipulation of arabinoxylan content of wheat grain seems to be a reasonable breeding objective.
Morris, Craig F.
Bettge, Arthur D.
Cereal chemistry 2009 Jan-Feb, v. 86, no. 1
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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