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Fe(III) stimulates 3-methylindole and 4-methylphenol production in swine lagoon enrichments and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775
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To determine the effects of anaerobic electron acceptors on 3-methylindole (3-MI) and 4-methylphenol (4-MP) production in swine lagoon enrichments and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775. Swine lagoon sediment was incubated anaerobically in tryptone-yeast extract medium with (10 mmol l⁻¹) Na₂SO₄, KNO₃, dimethyl sulfoxide or Fe(III). With Fe(III), 3-MI and 4-MP levels increased significantly to 138 ± 15·8 and 187 ± 14·0 μmol l⁻¹, respectively. Clostridium scatologenes cultured in brain-heart infusion medium amended with (10 mmol l⁻¹) Na₂SO₄, KNO₃, MnO₂ or Fe(III), resulted in only Fe(III) significantly increasing 3-MI (1308 μmol l⁻¹) and 4-MP (367 μmol l⁻¹) levels. In semi-defined medium, Fe(III) alone and Fe(III) + l-tryptophan (1 mmol l⁻¹) resulted in a 1·85-fold and 15·6-fold increase in 3-MI levels over l-tryptophan alone, respectively. Fe(III) alone and Fe(III) + l-tyrosine (1 mmol l⁻¹) caused a 4·4-fold and 22·9-fold increase in 4-MP levels over tyrosine alone, respectively. Fe(III) did not increase growth of Cl. scatologenes. Fe(III) increases 3-MI and 4-MP in swine lagoon enrichments and Cl. scatologenes broth cultures. Previous studies suggest Fe(III) addition to swine lagoons could remediate malodorous volatile fatty acids; however, here data suggest Fe(III) could increase malodorous indolic and phenolic levels.
Letters in applied microbiology 2009 Jan., v. 48, no. 1
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
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