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Broad diversity and newly cultured bacterial isolates from enrichment of pig feces on complex polysaccharides

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One of the fascinating functions of mammalian intestinal microbiota is fermentation of plant cell wall components. Eight-week continuous culture enrichments of pig feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin were used to isolate bacteria from this community. A total of 575 bacterial isolates were classified phylogenetically using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Six phyla were represented in the bacterial isolates: Firmicutes (242), Bacteroidetes (185), Proteobacteria (65), Fusobacteria (55), Actinobacteria (23), and Synergistetes (5). The majority of the bacterial isolates had ≥97 % similarity to cultured bacteria with sequences in the RDP, but 179 isolates represent new species and/or genera. Within the Firmicutes isolates, most were classified in the families of Lachnospiraceae, Enterococcaceae, Staphylococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae I. The majority of the Bacteroidetes were most closely related to Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus, and B. xylanisolvens. Many of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes isolates were identified as species that possess enzymes that ferment plant cell wall components, and the rest likely support these bacteria. The microbial communities that arose in these enrichment cultures had broad bacterial diversity. With over 30 % of the isolates not represented in culture, there are new opportunities to study genomic and metabolic capacities of these members of the complex intestinal microbiota.
Cherie J. Ziemer
Actinobacteria , Bacteroides ovatus , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , Clostridiaceae , Enterococcaceae , Fusobacteria , Proteobacteria , Staphylococcaceae , bacteria , cell wall components , cells , cellulose , enrichment culture , enzymes , feces , fermentation , intestinal microorganisms , microbial communities , new species , nucleotide sequences , pectins , ribosomal RNA , swine
USDA Scientist Submission
Microbial ecology 2013 1 29 v.66
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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