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CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and double-stranded RNA synergize to enhance nitric oxide production and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in chicken monocytes
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial components and initiate the innate immune responses that control microbial infections. The interaction between ligands of TLR3 and TLR9, poly I:C (an analog of viral double-stranded RNA) and CpG-ODN (a CpG-motif containing oligodeoxydinucleotide) on the inflammatory immune responses, including the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-6, and chemokines IL-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1b, were investigated in chicken monocytes. The NO production was significantly higher when stimulated with a combination of CpG-ODN and poly I:C than with either CpG-ODN or poly I:C alone. Similarly, a significant synergistic effect by CpG-ODN and poly I:C was observed in the up-regulation of iNOS and IL-8 mRNA after 2 h and persisted up to 24 h. Although the combinatory treatment of CpG-ODN and poly I:C enhanced the expression of IL-1b, IL-6, and MIP-1b after 2 h stimulation, the synergism in the up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 mRNA was observed after 8-h and 24-h stimulation, respectively, whereas there was no synergistic effect on MIP-1b. Our results demonstrate that CpG-ODN synergizes with poly I:C to induce pro-inflammatory immune response in chicken monocytes.
Kathryn M. MacKinnon
Kenneth J. Genovese
Michael H. Kogut
gene expression regulation
nitric oxide synthase
Journal of Innate Immunity 2010 v.17 no.2
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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