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Effect of thymol or diphenyliodonium chloride on performance, gut fermentation characteristics, and Campylobacter colonization in growing swine

Permanent URL:
http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57225
Abstract:
Food producing animals can be reservoirs of Campylobacter, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness. Campylobacter spp. utilize amino acids as major carbon and energy substrates, a process that can be inhibited by thymol and diphenyliodonium chloride (DIC). To determine the effect of these potential additives on feed intake, live weight gain, and gut Campylobacter levels, growing pigs were fed standard grower diets supplemented with or without 0.0067 or 0.0201% thymol or 0.00014 or 0.00042% DIC in a replicated study design. Diets were offered twice daily for 7 days, during which time daily feed intake (mean ± SEM, 2.39 ± 0.06 kg day-1) and daily gain (0.62 ± 0.04 kg day-1) were unaffected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Pigs treated with DIC but not thymol tended to have lower rectal Campylobacter levels (P = 0.07) (5.2 versus 4.2 and 4.4 log CFU g-1 rectal contents for controls and 0.00014% DIC and 0.00042% DIC, respectively; SEM = 0.26). However, DIC or thymol treatments did not affect (P > 0.05) ileal or cecal Campylobacter (1.6 ± 0.17 and 4.5 ± 0.26 log CFU g-1, respectively), cecal total culturable anaerobes (9.8 ± 0.10 log CFU g-1), or accumulations of major fermentation end products within collected gut contents. These results suggest that thymol and DIC were appreciably absorbed, degraded, or otherwise made unavailable in the proximal alimentary tract and that encapsulation technologies will likely be needed to deliver effective concentrations of these compounds to the lower gut to achieve in vivo reductions of Campylobacter.
Author(s):
Robin C. Anderson , Nathan A. Krueger , Kenneth J. Genovese , Thaddeus B. Stanton , Kathryn M. MacKinnon , Roger B. Harvey , Thomas S. Edrington , Todd R. Callaway , David J. Nisbet
Subject(s):
Campylobacter , anaerobes , bacterial colonization , carbon , cecum , chlorides , encapsulation , experimental design , feed additives , feed intake , fermentation , grower diets , ileum , intestinal microorganisms , liveweight gain , rectum , swine , swine feeding , thymol
Source:
Journal of food protection 2012 v.75 no.4
Language:
English
Year:
2012
Collection:
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
File:
Download [PDF File]
Rights:
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.