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Annual warm-season grasses vary for forage yield, quality, and competitiveness with weeds

Permanent URL:
http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57127
File:
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Abstract:
Warm-season annual grasses may be suitable as forage crops in integrated weed management systems with reduced herbicide use. A 2-year field study was conducted to determine whether tillage system and nitrogen (N) fertilizer application method influenced crop and weed biomass, water use, water use efficiency (WUE), and forage quality of three warm-season grasses, and seed production by associated weeds. Tillage systems were zero tillage and conventional tillage with a field cultivator. The N fertilization methods were urea broadcast or banded near seed rows at planting. Warm-season grasses seeded were foxtail (Setaria italica L.) and proso (Panicum mileaceum L.) millets, and sorghum–sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench × Sorghum sudenense Stapf.). Density of early emerging weeds was similar among treatments, averaging 51 m−2. Millets exhibited higher weed density and weed biomass than sorghum–sudangrass. At harvest, sorghum–sudangrass produced significantly greater biomass and N accumulation than either millet. Water use (157 mm) and WUE (25.1 kg mm-1 ha−1) of total biomass did not vary among treatments or grass entries. Weed seed production by redroot pigweed and green foxtail was respectively 93 and 73% less in sorghum–sudangrass than proso millet. Warm-season grasses offer an excellent fit in semiarid cropping systems.
Author(s):
Andrew W. Lenssen , S. Dennis Cash
Subject(s):
Amaranthus retroflexus , Panicum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum , Setaria italica , Setaria viridis , Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii , application methods , biomass production , conventional tillage , crop-weed competition , cropping systems , fertilizer application , forage crops , forage grasses , forage quality , forage yield , integrated crop management , management systems , millets , no-tillage , seed productivity , sowing , urea , urea fertilizers , warm season grasses , water use efficiency , weeds
Source:
Archives of agronomy and soil science 2011 v.57 no.8
Language:
English
Year:
2011
Collection:
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
Rights:
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.