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Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: I. Soil-Inversion, High-Residue Cover Crops and Herbicide Regimes

Permanent URL:
http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/56852
File:
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Abstract:
A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil-inversion, cover crops and herbicide regimes for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR) and within-row (WR) management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. The main plots were two soil-inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT) and non-inversion tillage (NIT). The subplots were three cover crop treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye and winter fallow; and sub subplots were four herbicide regimes: preemergence (PRE) alone, postemergence (POST) alone, PRE + POST and a no herbicide check (None). The PRE herbicide regime consisted of a single application of pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha?1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha?1. The POST herbicide regime consisted of a single application of glufosinate at 0.60 kg ai ha?1 plus S-metolachlor at 0.54 kg ai ha?1 and the PRE + POST regime combined the prior two components. At 2 weeks after planting (WAP) cotton, Palmer amaranth densities, both BR and WR, were reduced ?90% following all cover crop treatments in the IT. In the NIT, crimson clover reduced Palmer amaranth densities >65% and 50% compared to winter fallow and cereal rye covers, respectively. At 6 WAP, the PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes in both IT and NIT reduced BR and WR Palmer amaranth densities >96% over the three years. Additionally, the BR density was reduced ?59% in no-herbicide (None) following either cereal rye or crimson clover when compared to no-herbicide in the winter fallow. In IT, PRE, POST and PRE + POST herbicide regimes controlled Palmer amaranth >95% 6 WAP. In NIT, Palmer amaranth was controlled ?79% in PRE and ?95% in PRE + POST herbicide regimes over three years. POST herbicide regime following NIT was not very consistent. Averaged across three years, Palmer amaranth controlled ?94% in PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes regardless of cover crop. Herbicide regime effect on cotton yield was highly significant; the maximum cotton yield was produced by the PRE + POST herbicide regime. Averaged over three years, the PRE, POST and PRE + POST cotton yields were about three times higher than no herbicide regime. In a conservation tillage production system, a PRE + glufosinate POST herbicide based regime coupled with a cereal rye cover crop may effectively control Palmer amaranth and maximize cotton yields.
Author(s):
Jatinder S. Aulakh , Andrew J. Price , Stephen F. Enloe , Edzard van Santen , Glenn Wehtje , Michael G. Patterson
Subject(s):
Amaranthus , Trifolium incarnatum , conservation tillage , cotton , cover crops , crop yield , fallow , field experimentation , fomesafen , glufosinate , herbicide resistance , plant density , rye
Source:
Agronomy 2012 v.2
Language:
English
Year:
2012
Collection:
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
Rights:
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.