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Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Responses to Volatile Emissions Associated With Ethanol-Injected Magnolia virginiana

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Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and other species of ambrosia beetles are key pests of ornamental nursery trees. A variety of laboratory- and field-based experiments were conducted in pursuit of improved monitoring strategies and to develop a trap tree strategy for ambrosia beetles. Traps baited with bolts prepared from Magnolia virginiana L. injected with ethanol caught five times more X. germanus than ethanol-baited traps. Basal stem injections of ethanol into M. virginiana induced more ambrosia beetle attacks than irrigating or baiting with ethanol, and no attacks occurred on water-injected trees. A positive correlation was also detected between concentration of injected ethanol and cumulative attacks. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterized bark emissions from ethanol- and water-injected M. virginiana at 1, 2, 10, and 16 d after treatment. Ethanol emission from injected trees steadily declined from 1 to 16 d after treatment, but was not emitted from water-injected trees. A variety of monoterpenes were also emitted in trace amounts from the ethanol- and water-injected trees. Antennal responses of X. germanus via gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection to volatiles from ethanol-injected M. virginiana occurred for ethanol, but not the various monoterpenes. X. germanus and other ambrosia beetles were also equally attracted to traps baited with ethanol alone compared with a synthetic mixture of ethanol plus various monoterpenes formulated to mimic ethanol-injected M. virginiana. Injecting concentrated solutions of ethanol into trees may be useful for establishing odor-based trap trees, which could aid with monitoring programs and/or potentially deflect ambrosia beetles away from valuable nursery stock.
Christopher M. Ranger , Michael E. Reding , Peter B. Schultz , Jason B. Oliver
Curculionidae , Magnolia virginiana , Xylosandrus , ambrosia beetles , bait traps , bark , bolts , dose response , emissions , ethanol , gas chromatography , insect attractants , insect control , insect pests , mass spectrometry , microextraction , monoterpenoids , nursery stock , ornamental trees , plant pests , stems , volatile compounds
Environmental entomology 2012 v.41 no.3
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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