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Spring Nitrogen Fertilization of Ryegrass–Bermudagrass for Phytoremediation of Phosphorus-Enriched Soils
Because annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) exhibits increases in herbage P with increasing soil P, biomass response to N should influence phytoremediation of P-enriched soils. Field plot (each 2 by 5 m) studies were conducted to determine the effect of six N schemes that provided 112 or 168 kg N ha−1 on uptake of P and soil test P (STP, 0–15-cm depth) of double-cropped bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.)] and ryegrass. Bermudagrass was previously fertilized with 9 and 18 Mg broiler litter ha−1 in 2004–2007, no litter was applied after 2007. At past litter rate of 9 Mg ha−1, total uptake of P averaged 48.5 kg ha−1 in 2008 and 51.7 kg ha−1 in 2009. Based on initial STP levels in 2007, results in 2009 indicated STP levels decreased by approximately 50 kg ha−1 yr−1, with reductions of 44% at 9 Mg litter ha−1 (104–58 mg kg−1) and 38% at 18 Mg litter ha−1 (173–108 mg kg−1). Averaged across years and litter rates, uptake of P in ryegrass was greater at 168 than 112 kg N ha−1 (35.4 vs. 29.4 kg ha−1, P < 0.01) and ranged from 35.8 kg ha−1 in scheme N5 to 26.7 kg ha−1 in scheme N1. Schemes N5 and N6, with a total rate of 168 kg N ha−1 in March and May, stimulated uptake of P in ryegrass and ryegrass–bermudagrass, but STP levels in 2009 were not lower than a single application of 112 kg N ha−1 in January and March.
Read, John J.
Agronomy journal 2012 July, v. 104, no. 4
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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