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Toxicokinetics of the Flame Retardant Hexabromocyclododecane Gamma: Effect of Dose, Timing, Route, Repeated Exposure, and Metabolism
- Hexabromocyclododecane-gamma (γ-HBCD) is the predominate diastereoisomer in the commercial HBCD mixture used as a flame retardant in a wide variety of consumer products. Three main diastereoisomers, alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ), comprise the mixture. Despite the γ-diastereoisomer being the major diastereoisomer in the mixture and environmental samples, the α-diastereoisomer predominates human tissue and wildlife. This study was conducted to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion parameters of γ-HBCD with respect to dose and time following a single acute exposure and repeated exposure in adult female C57BL/6 mice. Results suggest that 85% of the administered dose (3 mg/kg) was absorbed after po exposure. Disposition was dose independent and did not significantly change after 10 days of exposure. Liver was the major depot (< 0.3% of dose) 4 days after treatment followed by blood, fat, and then brain. γ-HBCD was rapidly metabolized and eliminated in the urine and feces. For the first time, in vivo stereoisomerization was observed of the γ-diastereoisomer to the β-diastereoisomer in liver and brain tissues and to the α- and β-diastereoisomer in fat and feces. Polar metabolites in the blood and urine were a major factor in determining the initial whole-body half-life (1 day) after a single po exposure. Elimination, both whole-body and from individual tissues, was biphasic. Initial half-lives were approximately 1 day, whereas terminal half-lives were up to 4 days, suggesting limited potential for γ-diastereoisomer bioaccumulation. The toxicokinetic behavior reported here has important implications for the extrapolation of toxicological studies of the commercial HBCD mixture to the assessment of risk.
Szabo, David T. , Diliberto, Janet J. , Hakk, Heldur , Huwe, Janice K. , Birnbaum, Linda S.
absorption , acute exposure , administered dose , bioaccumulation , blood , body fat , brain , diastereomers , excretion , feces , half life , intestinal absorption , lipids , liver , metabolites , mice , oral administration , organobromine compounds , pharmacokinetics , urine
- Includes references
- Toxicological sciences 2010 Oct., v. 117, issue 2
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
- Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.