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Effects of field-manure applications on stratified 17β-estradiol concentrations
The occurrence of the manure-borne estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), was investigated in laboratory and field soils. In the laboratory, E2 was applied to soil to simulate concentrations found in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure (5000 ng L−1). The aqueous-extracted E2 dissipated in the soil by 98% within 1 h and was not significantly different from background concentrations (18 ng L−1) for the duration of the experiment (64 h). In the field study, soil cores were taken before and several dates after swine manure application. Equivalent porewater concentrations of water-extractable E2 were determined in 0.15-m increments down to the water table (0.70–2.00 m deep). The average frequency of detection for 168 samples was 38% (average = 40 ng L−1 porewater equivalents). Eleven days after manure application there was no significant effect on E2 detection frequency or concentration. However, E2 concentrations significantly increased by 6 months after manure application, and appeared to be related to precipitation. Concentrations then returned to original levels by 17 months after manure application. Manure did not have an immediate effect on E2 occurrence due to the capacity of the soil to rapidly sorb E2. However, it appears that soil may act as a long-term reservoir for E2 in the environment, which may be periodically released through desorption.
Schuh, Mary C.
Casey, Francis X.M.
DeSutter, Thomas M.
Richards, Karl G.
Oduor, Peter G.
soil pore water
Journal of hazardous materials 2011 Aug. 30, v. 192, no. 2
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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