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Development of a Benchtop Baking Method for Chemically Leavened Crackers. II. Validation of the Method
A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machining. The effects of enzymes on cracker-baking performance were explored to assess the impact of damaged starch and pentosans (arabinoxylans). Validation of the method for predicting gluten functionality and performance was conducted using various flours. Cracker dough rheology, measured in the direction of sheeting, showed a positive correlation with the ratio of cracker height to dough weight, but a negative correlation with the ratio of cracker width to length. Use of α-amylase and xylanase demonstrated the improving effects of enzymes on cracker-baking performance of flour resulting from decreased dough crumbliness and increased cracker height. Flour gluten performance ratio of lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LA SRC)/(sodium carbonate [SC] SRC + sucrose [Suc] SRC) (SRC LA/[SC+Suc]) was a better predictor of cracker geometry than was flour gluten functionality value of LA SRC alone. Flours with a gluten performance ratio of <0.52 produced unacceptable, excessive blistering during cracker baking.
Cereal chemistry 2011 Jan-Feb, v. 88, no. 1
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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