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Vitamin D content and variability in fluid milks from a US Department of Agriculture nationwide sampling to update values in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
- This study determined the vitamin D3 content and variability of retail milk in the United States having a declared fortification level of 400 IU (10 μg) per quart (qt; 1 qt=946.4mL), which is 25% daily value per 8 fluid ounce (236.6mL) serving. In 2007, vitamin D3 fortified milk (skim, 1%, 2%, whole, and 1% fat chocolate milk) was collected from 24 statistically selected supermarkets in the United States. Additionally, 2% milk samples from an earlier 2001 USDA nationwide collection were reanalyzed. Vitamin D3 was determined using a specifically validated method involving HPLC with UV spectroscopic detection and vitamin D2 as an internal standard. Quality control materials were analyzed with the samples. Of the 120 milk samples procured in 2007, 49% had vitamin D3 within 100 to 125% of 400 IU (10 μg)/qt (label value), 28% had 501 to 600 IU (12.5–15 μg)/qt, 16% had a level below the label amount, and 7% had greater than 600 IU (15 μg)/qt (>150% of label). Even though the mean vitamin D3 content did not differ statistically between milk types, a wide range in values was found among individual samples, from nondetectable [<20 IU (0.5 μg)/qt] for one sample to almost 800 IU (20 μg)/qt, with a trend toward more samples of whole milk having greater than 150% of the labeled content. On average, vitamin D3 in 2% milk was higher in 2007 compared with in 2001 [473 vs. 426 IU (11.8 vs. 10.6 μg)/qt].
Patterson, K.Y. , Phillips, K.M. , Horst, R.L. , Byrdwell, W.C. , Exler, J. , Lemar, L.E. , Holden, J.M.
milk composition , vitamin content , vitamin D , fluid milk , fortified foods , skim milk , low fat milk , whole milk , chocolate milk , cholecalciferol , ergocalciferol , variance , United States
- Includes references
- Journal of dairy science 2010 Nov., v. 93, no. 11
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
- Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.