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Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster-root development and citrate exudation in white lupin
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White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation was evaluated. White lupin plants were treated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and scavenger or inhibitor of NO synthase under conditions of P deficiency (0 μM) or P sufficiency (50 μM). Phosphorus deficiency enhanced NO production in primary and lateral root tips, with a greater increase in cluster roots than in noncluster roots. NO concentrations decreased with cluster root development from the pre-emergent stage, through the juvenile stage, to the mature stage. The P deficiency-induced increase in NO production was inhibited by antagonists of NO synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in NO production. SNP markedly increased the number of cluster roots. Citrate exudation from different root segments in P-deficient roots was positively correlated with endogenous root NO concentrations. These findings demonstrate differential patterns of NO production in white lupin, depending on root zone, developmental stage and P nutritional status. NO appears to play a regulatory role in the formation of cluster roots and citrate exudation in white lupin under conditions of P deficiency.
New phytologist 2010 Sept., v. 187, no. 4
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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