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Trace element loss in urine and effluent following traumatic injury

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Background: Few data are available to establish recommendations for trace element supplementation during critical illness. This study quantified the loss of several elements and assessed the adequacy of manganese and selenium in parenteral nutrition (PN). Methods: Men with traumatic injuries were grouped by renal status: adequate (POLY; n = 6), acute failure with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH; n = 2), or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHD; n = 4). PN supplied 300 μg/d manganese and 60 μg/d selenium. Urine and effluent (from artificial kidneys) were collected for 3 days and analyzed for boron, manganese, nickel, and silicon using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and for selenium using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: POLY manganese and selenium excretion averaged (standard deviation [SD]) 7.9 (3.3) μg/d and 103.5 (22.4) μg/d, respectively. All elements except selenium were detected in dialysate (prior to use). CVVHD effluent contained 3.5 and 7.3 times more manganese and nickel than CVVH ultrafiltrate, respectively. Loss of manganese averaged 2.6%, 21%, and 73% of PN amounts for POLY, CVVH, and CVVHD groups, respectively. Discussion: Minimal loss of manganese compared with the amount in PN suggests that excessive amounts are retained. POLY patients excreted more selenium than was in PN, indicating negative balance. POLY losses of boron and silicon were less than that published for healthy adults, reflecting less than typical intake, whereas loss during CVVH was in the normal reference range, possibly because of added intake from boron contamination of replacement fluids. All patients lost more nickel than amounts published for healthy adults. Conclusions: Current guidelines of 60-100 μg/d of parenteral manganese may be excessive for trauma patients. The uptake of manganese and nickel from contaminants in CVVHD dialysate should be investigated.
Klein, Catherine J. , Nielsen, Forrest H. , Moser-Veillon, Phylis B.
Includes references
JPEN, Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition 2008 Mar-Apr, v. 32, no. 2
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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