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Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality
Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate, and particle-size reduction) in cake-baking functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects, but postmilling to reduce flour particle size was a less significant factor. RVA results showed that starch pasting was accelerated, and both peak and set-back viscosities were enhanced, with increasing extent of chlorination. These effects were exaggerated by the high sugar concentration relevant to cake baking, compared to the same effects in water. Cake baking with chlorinated flours, in a formulation with 50% sugar (%S) and 275 parts total solvent (TS), showed that, as the extent of chlorination increased, cake moisture content and edge height decreased. Cake center height and shape factor were curvilinear, with maxima near flour with pH 4.6. Dramatic collapse occurred for cakes baked with unchlorinated flour samples, due to delayed starch pasting, as documented by time-lapse photography and comparison to the geometry of the final cooled cakes. Starch pasting and egg white setting occurred too early for the cakes baked with excessively chlorinated flour (pH <or=4.0), but too late for the cakes baked with unchlorinated or insufficiently chlorinated flours (pH >or=4.9), compared to the ideal starch pasting and egg white setting behavior with appropriately chlorinated flours (pH >4.0 and <4.9). Informal sensory texture evaluation showed that cake mouthfeel was related to both moisture content per se and the relationship between moisture content and cake relative humidity (%RH). Excessive flour chlorination resulted in unacceptably dry cake mouthfeel.
Cereal chemistry 2010 Sept-Oct, v. 87, no. 5
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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