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Influence of soil fumigation by methyl bromide and methyl iodide on rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial community structure
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Rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities were evaluated on roots and leaves of growth chamber-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa (L.) cv. Green Forest) plants by culture-dependent and -independent methods after soil fumigation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with 16S rRNA primers followed by cloning and sequencing was used to identify major rRNA bands from the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Three weeks after fumigation, there were no differences (P = 0.16) in rhizosphere microbial communities between the fumigated treatments and the control. The same effect was observed during week seven after fumigation (P=0.49). Also, no significant differences (P=0.49) were found in the phyllosphere microbial communities between the fumigated treatments and the control during the growth period of the plant. A majority of the bands in the rhizosphere were related to known bacterial sequences with a 96 to 100 % sequence similarity. Some of the derived sequences were related to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC300 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110. A total of 23 isolates were identified from leaf surface by both culture-dependent and independent methods, and only Photorhabdus luminescens was found on leaf surface using both techniques. All the Biolog isolates from phyllosphere were from the Proteobacteria phylum compared to the culture-independent bands from the leaves that were from different bacterial phyla. Based on our data, methyl bromide (MeBr) and methyl iodide (MeI) did not have any significant negative effects on rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities throughout the growing period of lettuce.
Journal of environmental science and health. Part B: Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes 2010 July, v. 45, no. 5
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