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Drip application of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for strawberry production
- Strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne) is a high-value cash crop that benefits from preplant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) and chloropicrin (CP). Methyl bromide will be banned in the U.S. and other developed countries by 2005 for most uses. Potential alternative chemicals to replace methyl bromide for soil fumigation include CP, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators such as metam sodium (MS). Commercial formulations of these fumigants applied singly and in combination through drip irrigation systems were evaluated at two sites for three consecutive growing seasons as alternatives to MB:CP fumigation for strawberry production. A mixture of 1,3-D and CP was shank injected as Telone C35 (62% 1,3-D and 35% CP) at 374 kg.ha(-1). An emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation of 1,3-D and CP was applied as InLine (60% 1,3-D and 32% CP) at 236 and 393 L.ha(-1) through drip irrigation systems in three amounts of irrigation water (26, 43, and 61 L.m(-2)). Chloropicrin (CP EC, 96%) was drip applied singly at 130 or 200 L.ha(-1). Metam sodium was applied singly as Vapam HL in three amounts of water and in combination with InLine and CP EC. Strawberry growth, fruit yields, disease pressure, and weed biomass were compared to an untreated control and shank injection with MB:CP mixture (67:33) at 425 kg.ha(-1). For soils high in pathogen populations, fruit yield from the untreated plots was 34% to 50% relative to the MB:CP treatment. The greatest (95% to 110%) yields relative to MB:CP were in the high rates of the InLine treatments. Yields from simultaneous drip fumigation with a combination of Vapam HL and InLine or CP EC were less (67% to 79%) than yields from shank fumigation with MB:CP due to 1,3-D and CP hydrolysis reactions with Vapam HL or the generated MITC in the irrigation water that reduced the efficacy of these combinations to control soilborne pathogens. Application of reduced rates of InLine or CP EC followed 6 days later with reduced rates of Vapam HL controlled soil borne pathogens and weeds and produced the greatest fruit yield relative to all treatments. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); methyl bromide (MB); trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin, CP); sodium methyldithiocarbamate (metam sodium); methyl isothiocyanate (MITC).
Ajwa, H.A. , Trout, T.
soil fumigation , fumigants , application methods , pesticide application , Fragaria ananassa , microirrigation , metam , plant growth , crop yield , irrigation water , raised beds , weeds , weed control , disease control
- Includes references
- HortScience : a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science 2004 Dec., v. 39, no. 7
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
- Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.