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Use of composted animal manures to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene emissions
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Atmospheric emission of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been associated with the deterioration of air quality in certain fumigation areas. To minimize the environmental impacts of 1,3-D, feasible and cost-effective control strategies are in need of investigation. One approach to reduce emissions is to enhance the surface layer of a soil to degrade 1,3-D. A field study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of composted steer manure (SM) and composted chicken manure (CKM) to reduce 1,3-D emissions. SM or CKM were applied to the top 5-cm soil layer at a rate of 3.3 or 6.5 kg m-2. An emulsified formulation of 1,3-D was applied through drip tape at 130.6 kg ha-1 into raised beds. The drip tape was placed in the center of each bed (102 cm wide) and 15 cm below the surface. Passive flux chambers were used to measure the loss of 1,3-D for 170 h after fumigant application. Results indicated that the cumulative loss of 1,3-D was about 48% and 28% lower in SM- and CKM-amended beds, respectively, than in the unamended beds. Overall, both isomers of 1,3-D behaved similarly in all treatments. The cumulative loss of 1,3-D, however, was not significantly different between the two manure application rates for either SM or CKM. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using composted animal manures to control 1,3-D emissions.
Journal of environmental science and health. Part B: Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes 2005, v. 40, no. 2
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