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Tree fruit IPM programs in the western United States: the challenge of enhancing biological control through intensive management
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The seminal work of Stern and his coauthors on integrated control has had a profound and long-lasting effect on the development of IPM programs in western orchard systems. Management systems based solely on pesticides have proven to be unstable, and the success of IPM systems in western orchards has been driven by conservation of natural enemies to control secondary pests, combined with pesticides and mating disruption to suppress the key lepidopteran pests. However, the legislatively mandated changes in pesticide use patterns prompted by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 have resulted in an increased instability of pest populations in orchards because of natural enemy destruction. The management system changes have made it necessary to focus efforts on enhancing biological control not only of secondary pests but also of primary lepidopteran pests to help augment new pesticides and mating disruption tactics. The new management programs envisioned will be information extensive as well as time sensitive and will require redesign of educational and outreach programs to be successful. The developing programs will continue to use the core principles of Stern and his co-authors, but go beyond them to incorporate changes in society, technology and information transfer, as needed.
Jones, Vincent P.
Unruh, Thomas R.
Horton, David R.
Mills, Nicholas J.
Brunner, Jay F.
Beers, Elizabeth H.
Shearer, Peter W.
Pest management science 2009 Dec., v. 65, no. 12
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.
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