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Activated carbons from flax shive and cotton gin waste as environmental adsorbents for the chlorinated hydrocarbon trichloroethylene
- Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is to show that flax shive and cotton gin waste can serve as a precursor for activated carbon that can be used for adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) from both the liquid and gas phases. Testing was conducted on carbon activated with phosphoric acid or steam. The results show that activated carbon made from flax shive performed better than select commercial activated carbons, especially at higher TCE concentrations. The activation method employed had little effect on TCE adsorption in gas or vapor phase studies but liquid phase studies suggested that steam activation is slightly better than phosphoric acid activation. As expected, the capacity for the activated carbons depended on the fluid phase equilibrium concentration. At a fluid concentration of 2mg of TCE/L of fluid, the capacity of the steam activated carbon made from flax shive was similar at 64 and 80mg TCE/g of carbon for the vapor and liquid phases, respectively. Preliminary cost estimates suggest that the production costs of such carbons are $1.50 to $8.90 per kg, depending on activation method and precursor material; steam activation was significantly less expensive than phosphoric acid activation.
Klasson, K. Thomas , Wartelle, Lynda H. , Lima, Isabel M. , Marshall, Wayne E. , Akin, Danny E.
Linum usitatissimum , flax , cotton gin trash , adsorbents , chlorinated hydrocarbons , trichloroethylene
- Includes references
- Bioresource technology 2009 Nov., v. 100, no. 21
- [New York, NY]: Elsevier Ltd.
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
- Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.