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Insecticide, sugar, and diet effects on feeding and mortality in Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae)
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The effects of spinosad bait and various insecticides, the presence of sugar in insecticides, and diet on feeding responses and mortality in western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae), were determined. Numbers of feeding events on insecticides with sugar were greater than on insecticides alone, but there was only a small effect of diet on feeding responses to insecticides with sugar. Feeding durations on imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid with sugar were shorter than on sugar water and spinosad bait, as the neonicotinoids paralysed flies quickly. Flies that fed on sugar only (nitrogen-starved) suffered higher mortalities when exposed to spinosad, thiamethoxam and azinphos-methyl than to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and indoxacarb, and mortality in between these two groups of treatments when exposed to spinosad bait. Mortalities were greater when sugar was added to insecticides, and were higher in nitrogen-starved than fully-fed (yeast extract + sugar fed) flies. Flies that fed once on thiamethoxam were killed more quickly than those that fed once on spinosad bait and spinosad. Results suggest that thiamethoxam is comparable to spinosad in its effects on mortality, and that using it with sugar in bait may also have similar results as using spinosad bait or spinosad. One benefit of using thiamethoxam with sugar may be that it kills flies more quickly, before they can oviposit, than spinosad bait, although whether a fly will feed on it may depend on how much sugar or nitrogenous food it has eaten.
Journal of applied entomology = Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 2009 May, v. 133, no. 4
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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