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Influence of Flour Chlorination and Ingredient Formulation on the Quality Attributes of Pancakes
Soft wheat flour is commonly chlorinated in North America for the production of cakes and pancakes. The oxidative properties of chlorine gas cause chemical modifications to flour components that enhance processing and end-use functionality of the intended food products. The objectives of this study were 1) to compare how untreated and chlorine-treated commercial soft wheat flour perform in a standard pancake formulation and 2) to compare how the individual ingredients in a standard pancake formulation influence quality attributes of pancakes made with untreated as well as chlorine-treated commercial soft wheat flour. Two portions of the same soft wheat flour, one chlorinated and the other unchlorinated, were used to study the effects of flour chlorination on batter viscosity, geometry, and texture quality attributes of pancakes. Commercial pancake formula ingredients were evaluated at different concentrations for their individual influence on quality attributes of pancakes. Differences in means (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the influence of the sources of pancake quality variation. The results indicate that flour chlorination had a significant influence on pancake batter viscosity, geometry, and texture, with chlorinated flour producing a more viscous batter, a larger and thicker pancake that was softer, more cohesive and resilient. The evaluation of a wide range of formula ingredient concentrations indicated that none could wholly substitute for chlorination. Individual ingredients did dramatically influence pancake batter viscosity, geometry, and texture, especially soy flour, dextrose, and leavening agents. However, sucrose and shortening had nonsignificant influences on the end-use quality of both chlorinated and unchlorinated pancakes.
Cereal chemistry 2006 Nov-Dec, v. 83, no. 6
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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