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Selenium Bioavailability from Buckwheat Bran in Rats Fed a Modified AIN-93G Torula Yeast-Based Diet
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. The Se RDA for adult humans is 55 [micro]g/d; however, dietary amounts as high as 200 [micro]g/d in the highly available form of selenomethionine in yeast were shown to reduce the incidence of certain cancers. A number of natural foods contain relatively high amounts of Se; for the most part, however, the availability of food Se for absorption and utilization is unknown. This experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of Se from a high-protein, high-fiber bran-isolate of buckwheat groats that contains Se. The method used was based on the ability of Se from buckwheat bran to restore Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-deficient rats. The responses produced from buckwheat bran Se were compared with a standard response curve generated by feeding graded amounts of Se as sodium selenite (Na₂SeO₃; Na selenite) or selenomethionine (SeMet) in a newly reformulated AIN-93G-Torula yeast diet with a more balanced nutrient composition than older diets of this nature. Relative bioavailability was determined by using the slope-ratio assay method for enzyme data, or the parallel lines assay method for tissue Se concentration data. Results showed that Se availability from buckwheat bran based on the restoration of plasma Se was 70-80% as high as Na selenite or SeMet. However, when based on the restoration of muscle Se, buckwheat bran was 90% as high as Na selenite, but only 60% as high as SeMet. When using the ability of dietary Se to restore whole blood and liver glutathione peroxidase activity, buckwheat bran Se was 75-80% as high as Na selenite or SeMet. However, for the restoration of liver thioredoxin reductase, buckwheat bran Se was only 40% as high as Na selenite and 70% as high as SeMet. The relative bioavailability of Se from buckwheat bran with all variables considered was [approximately]73% whether measured against Na selenite or SeMet. Although some variables indicated low bioavailability of Se from buckwheat bran, other factors such as Se speciation in the bran, digestibility of the bran, the cooking process, and combinations with other foods in the diet should be considered and analyzed before firm conclusions can be reached.
Reeves, Philip G.
Leary, Peter D.
Gregoire, Brian R.
Finley, John W.
Lindlauf, James E.
Johnson, LuAnn K.
Journal of nutrition 2005 Nov., v. 135, no. 11
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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