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Stage-specific mortality of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to three species of Steinernema nematodes
Mortality of larval, pupal, and adult western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Tephritidae) exposed to the steinernematid nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae, and Steinernema intermedium, was determined in the laboratory and field. Larvae were the most susceptible stage, with mortality in the three nematode treatments ranging from 62 to 100%. S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae were equally effective against larvae at both 50 and 100 infective juveniles (IJs)/cm2. S. intermedium was slightly less effective against larvae than the other two species. Mortalities of R. indifferens larvae at 0, 2, 4, and 6 days following their introduction into soil previously treated with S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae at 50IJs/cm2 were 78.6, 92.5, 95.0, and 77.5% and 87.5, 52.5, 92.5, and 70.0%, respectively, and at 100IJs/cm2 were 90.0, 92.0, 100.0, and 84.0% and 90.0, 50.0, 42.0, and 40.0%, respectively. There was no decline in mortality caused by S. carpocapsae as time progressed, whereas there was in one test with S. feltiae. Larval mortalities caused by the two species were the same in a 1:1:1 vermiculite:peat moss:sand soil mix and a more compact silt loam soil. In the field, S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae were equally effective against larvae. Pupae were not infected, but adult flies were infected by all three nematode species in the laboratory. S. carpocapsae was the most effective species at a concentration of 100IJs/cm2 and infected 11-53% of adults that emerged. The high pathogenicity of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae against R. indifferens larvae and their persistence in soil as well as efficacy in different soil types indicate both nematodes hold promise as effective biological control agents of flies in isolated and abandoned lots or in yards of homeowners.
textural soil types
biological control agents
Biological control : theory and applications in pest management 2003 July, v. 27, no. 3
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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