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Effects of spinosad, spinosad bait, and chloronicotinyl insecticides on mortality and control of adult and larval western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Effects of spinosad, spinosad bait, and the chloronicotinyl insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid on mortality of the adults and larvae of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), were determined in the laboratory and the field. Spinosad and spinosad bait caused higher adult mortality than imidacloprid, which caused higher mortality than thiacloprid. Only spinosad bait prevented oviposition. All materials were more toxic to adults when ingested than when topically applied. Spinosad bait had the greatest residual toxicity on leaves, killing 100% of adults when aged for 14 d in the field. When materials were sprayed on infested cherries, numbers of live larvae in fruit after 8 d were lower in imidacloprid and thiacloprid than in spinosad and spinosad bait treatments, which did not differ from the control, but all materials reduced larval emergence over 30 d. In the field, spinosad and spinosad bait were as effective in suppressing larval infestations as azinphos-methyl and carbaryl, whereas imidacloprid was effective in most cases and thiacloprid was generally less effective than azinphos-methyl and carbaryl. Overall, results in the laboratory and field show that spinosad and chloronicotinyl insecticides differed significantly in their effectiveness against adults and larvae of R. indifferens but that spinosad, spinosad bait, and imidacloprid seem to be acceptable substitutes for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides for controlling this fruit fly.
Journal of economic entomology 2006 Oct., v. 99, no. 5
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