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Introduction and establishment of parasitoids for the biological control of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), in the Pacific Northwest

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Four parasitoids were imported from five countries in Eurasia and released in northwestern Washington, US, to control the apple ermine moth (AEM), Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, which colonized the Northwest around 1981. From 1988 to 1991, 95,474 individuals of Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) from France, China, Korea, and Russia were released in Washington. Parasitism of AEM increased 4- to 5-fold over that produced by preexisting natural enemies between 1989 and 1994 at 22 monitored sites. Subsequently, the wasp dispersed up to 20 km from release sites. A. fuscicollis also parasitized the cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta padellus (L.), which was discovered in the Pacific Northwest in 1993. A total of 1813 individuals of Herpestomus brunnicornis (Gravenhorst) from France, Korea, and Japan were released in 1989-1991, and 26 wasps were recovered in 1994-1995. From 1989 to 1991, 2647 Diadegma armillata (Gravenhorst) individuals from France were released. D. armillata was recovered at one site in 1991 two months following release, but no other recoveries have been made. A total of 8274 Eurystheae scutellaris(Robineau-Desvoidy) individuals were released in 1989 to 1991. However, this tachinid has not been recovered. A consistent decline of AEM populations occurred in 1989-1995, including at sites where A. fuscicollis was not recovered, suggesting other factors also contributed to this pest's decline. Now well established in western Washington, A. fuscicollis may help suppress future outbreaks of Y. malinellus and its congener, Y. padellus.
Unruh, T. , Short, R. , Herard, F. , Chen, K. , Hopper, K. , Pemberton, R. , Lee, J.H. , Ertle, L. , Swan, K. , Fuester, R.
Yponomeuta malinellus , Yponomeuta padellus , insect pests , Ageniaspis , Diadegma , Ichneumonidae , Tachinidae , parasitoids , biological control agents , introduced species , parasitism , geographical distribution , dispersal behavior , population dynamics , Washington
p. 332-345.
Includes references
Biological control : theory and application in pest management 2003 Nov., v. 28, no. 3
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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